Under the CSA project, SNV prepared various tools for the climate change vulnerability assessment on specific crops. The tools consisted of crop phonology, timeline, seasonal calendar, stakeholder analysis, resource mapping, mobility map, livelihood profiling, etc.
From 8-10 April, 2014 SNV conducted CCVA in Basac commune of Svay Chrum district, in Svay Rieng province to assess the climate change impact on vegetable production and to under adaptive measures carried out by the farmers. The meeting also discussed future adaptation measures.
Men and women farmers suffered different impact from the climate variation and change. Normally, men dominate women if they worked in the mixed group. The women were very active if they worked in the separated group with men. 16 farmers from 3 villages in the studied communes attended the focus group discussion; they are members of vegetable producer associations. In addition, 2 provincial staff and 1 communal staff from the Cambodian Farmer Association Federation of Agriculture Producers (CFAP) participated in the whole assessment process.
The assessment team consisted of 2 SNV advisers (Mr. Yim Soksophors and Ms. Saya Marta), they also met village chiefs, deputy village chief, commune chief and other commune councillors in separated meetings to present the CSA project and to collect additional information. Moreover, the team also met the Provincial Department of Water Resources and Meteorology (PDoWRAM) to collect rainfall, temperature and humidity data in the last 15 years for the scenario planning.
in the last 15 years for the scenario planning.
Summary of major information provided by the participants during the assessment:
■ Vegetable growing is normally started in the beginning of the raining seasons (June, July) and finished in August or September. Except, the farmers who have ponds have vegetables up to November/December. The farmers buy hybrid seed from local markets, but the quality is not really good. There is no vegetable seed producer in their community.
■ Drought happens almost every year, but only 2 major floods in the last 5 years. In 2011, flood and drought happened in the same year.
■ The farmers have noticed that heat is increasing during the last 2 years
■ Insects and diseases are the climatic associated problems and they occurred every year. The farmers use some pesticide, although more insects and diseases occurred.
■ Women and men shared similar labours in the vegetable growing, men normally involved in soil preparation and fertilizing, but women much involved in selling of harvested products.
■ To adapt to drought, some farmers dug ponds to harvest the rain water; however the water is not enough for planting vegetable in the whole dry season.
■ More people migrated from the commune to look for off-farm jobs (e.g., selling labours to work as construction workers, working for farmers in other areas inside the country, etc.) if the drought / flood happened.
■ CFAP and KADRA organizations implement their agricultural projects in the studied commune, but integration of climate smart agriculture practices into the training is very limited.
■ The farmers sell their vegetables to local markets, neighbouring families, and also supply to Svay Rieng market about 10 km from their commune.
Based on the results of the assessment, drought, flood, insects and diseases were the major climatic problems in vegetable production. For the next step, the CSA project will prepare the adaptation plan in consultation with the farmers, local authorities and other stakeholders.